The Civil Section is responsible for the legal documents and payments filed in civil cases in the Guernsey County Court of Common Pleas. A civil case is different from a criminal case in that civil cases seek to enforce or protect the private rights of individuals. Most wrongs involving civil complaints are compensable by money damages, but in special situations the Court may issue orders forbidding an individual from taking certain actions or commanding an individual to fulfill an obligation. Complaints or notices of appeal from a decision rendered by the State or County government are also filed in the Civil Section (unless statute dictates the case is to be filed with the Court of Appeals).

When the action is filed, a judge and a case number are assigned, and a summons is issued to be served upon the defendants when required, and the Clerk will collect the appropriate filing fees as determined by the fee schedule set by law. After the case has commenced, all subsequent pleadings are also filed with the Civil Section.

The Clerk maintains the records for the Court of Common Pleas. The record includes the docket and the index of all litigants involved in a civil action. These are public records available for inspection during normal office hours.